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SAT 美国历史 | ​简要美国历史事件回顾(四)

2017-07-14 09:22:15阅读1399

摘要:重建及经济增长时期(18-20世纪初)的简要美国历史

重建及经济增长时期(18-20世纪初)的简要美国历史

American History from 1860s to 1900s

一、Economicgrowth in the early 20th century 20世纪的美国经济增长
1.  tremendous growth 美国经济巨大增长

Tremendous growth of the Americaneconomy between the end of the civil war and 1900): Steam and electricityreplaced human muscle; steel took the place of iron. Machines and oil wereused. People and goods could move by railroads. In 1900 it became the largestproducer of coal and steel in the world.
从内战结束到1900年,美国经济取得了巨大发展;蒸汽和电力取代了人力,钢取代了铁。机器和石油得到了应用,客运和货运可以通过铁路。煤和铁的产量位居世界之首

2.  features in the growth of the economy 美国经济增长特点
1) There emerged a growth of industrial and financialmergers. By 1910, incorporation had become the dominant type;
2) With the development of industry and the extension ofrailroad network,there was a mushroom growth of cities and urbanization;
3) There was a rapid development of new technology. Theautomobile and radio also developed. America was on the way of becoming anation on wheels.
经济发展的特点:

1)出现了工业和金融合并发展的势头。到1910年,联合企业已成为主导形式;

2)随着工业和铁路网络的扩张,城市如雨后春笋般发展起来(都市化);

3)新工业技术发展迅猛。汽车和无线电也发展起来,美国正在成为一个车轮上的国家。

二、Progressivism and some of the reform efforts.进步运动与社会改革
1.  Progressivism进步运动

Progressivism, also known asthe Progressive Movement, appeared in America at the turn of the 20th century.It demanded government regulation of the economy and social conditions: toimprove living conditions of the poor, to ban child labour, work hour limit forwomen workers,and industrial accident insurance. Political area to reform state,city governments and economic area,toregulate big businesses are required.
进步运动出现在20世纪初,是一场要求政府调控经济和社会生活条件的运动。

社会领域:改善城市贫民的居住条件,禁止使用童工;

政治领域:改革市政府和州政府;

经济领域:调控大型企业。

2.  the Muckrakers and Progressive Movement揭发丑闻的人和社会进步运动
The Muckrakers, a group of reform-minded journalists,made investigations and exposed various dark sides of society. ProgressiveMovement was not an organized campaign with clearly defined goals. Rather, itwas a number of diverse efforts at political, social, and economic reforms.
搜集并揭发丑闻的人,是一群锐意改革的新闻记者,调查和揭露了社会的阴暗面。进步运动不是一场具有明确目标的有组织的运动,而是政治、社会以及经济改革方面一系列不同形式的努力。

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